The seaside town of Sochi and Krasnaya Polyana mountain village, geographically divided among themselves the Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games in 2014, relate to the riches of Krasnodar Region, one of the most dynamic of the Russian Federation.
Krasnodar region - the northernmost subtropical regions of the world and the most southern region of the Russian Federation. It is located in the western part of the Caucasus, and washed by two seas - the south-west of the Black and the north-west - the Sea of Azov.
For a long time, Kuban - the famous "granary of Russia", the capital of the Russian ports - is an honorary status of the main tourist region of the segment of the Russian economy. It serves and extraordinary diversity of flora and fauna, and a rich historical heritage - some historical and architectural monuments located on the territory of the region date back to the ancient period. In addition, the Krasnodar region - is hundreds of kilometers of sea beaches, a wide range of spa offers relaxation, unique mineral springs and curative mud, as well as a variety of opportunities for interesting and active leisure.
Krasnaya Polyana - the capital of the mountain cluster XXII Olympic and Paralympic Games in 2014 - an urban village in the Adler region of Greater Sochi.
The picturesque village with a rich history and unique natural conditions is 40 kilometers from Sochi, which is associated with the modern road. The area of Krasnaya Polyana is elongated along the river Mzymta living area, divided into several administrative areas, including directly Krasnaya Polyana (center), Esto-Sadok, and Rosa Khutor.
Location extremely picturesque village. The valley of the Mzymta river in Krasnaya Polyana forms a unique valley surrounded by high mountains, bounded on the north and north-east of the Main Caucasian ridge and spur Achishkho with peaks exceeding 3000 m. In the south and south-east of the valley is bordered by the Aibga ridge running parallel to the valley river. The village seemed hidden from prying eyes the mighty mountain ranges and is stored in its original, truly extraordinary as nature itself.
The climate of Krasnaya Polyana
Krasnaya Polyana is a truly unique piece of nature that takes its rightful place among the world's recreational areas. This combination of a mild climate, diverse vegetation, fresh mountain air, the presence of mineral springs and the proximity of the warm sea on our planet is no more.
In the early twentieth century was characterized as the Krasnaya Polyana mountain-climatic station. This definition is most closely corresponds to a truly unique resort, because the path of ascent can feel the change of the four climate zones: humid subtropical Mediterranean type, temperate - cold of Western European type (from 800 to 1,800-2,000 m), cold beet belt (from 1800 to 2500 m) and nival (3000 m).
Weather in Krasnaya Polyana mostly favorable, and is characterized by an abundance of sunny days, which allows you to comfortably relax here all year round. The frequent presence of the sun in the winter - a pleasant circumstance for those who would like to combine a ski vacation and sunbathing on the snowy slopes. The average temperature in the winter months - from 0 to -5 degrees. The coldest month is January, and the most snow - February, the most popular among skiers. Generally, the ski season in these areas is much more prolonged than in similar resorts in Europe - mountainous area Aibga ridge, called "Circus" and "Circus-2" for his arenoobraznuyu shape, maintain steady snow cover suitable for skiing until the the beginning of June.
Summer in the resort lasts from mid-May through September. It is warm, sunny and mainly windless. The average temperature in Krasnaya Polyana in the summer ranges from +24 to +28 degrees. Sometimes hot, but the heat is transferred much easier than on the coast. This is due to less air humidity and the presence of woodland surrounding the resort with fresh, clean air. At this time of the year in Krasnaya Polyana can go rain torrential character, but they are rarely protracted.
As the temperature regime of Krasnaya Polyana climate similar to the climate of resorts of the Swiss Alps. So often this picturesque corner of Greater Sochi is called "Russian Switzerland".
Nature of Krasnaya Polyana
The study of the flora and fauna of Krasnaya Polyana lets you feel as a traveler, not only around the world, but also in time, because the natural heritage of this area is represented by the incredible richness of the most diverse species. The mountain slopes - Colchis forest - Caucasian jungle. In contrast to the coast, where the plants grow, the natives, among which occupy a large part of the relict species (miraculously lived to us from ancient times immemorial) and endemic (ie, found only in the certain territory). Beech - the predominant drevostoyaschee plant, but while walking can often meet oak, hornbeam, gather up a few chestnuts in the autumn, to admire the beauty of boxwood. At the level of 1,800 meters above sea level forests are mixed - there are fir, pine, juniper, larch and other conifer species. Above only alpine meadows, full of red-plants such as rhododendron, butcher Colchis, Caucasian peony and others.
Animals Western Caucasus inhabit the spaces of the Krasnaya Polyana area of forests to mountain tops. Deer, wild boars, chamois, bears, bison, wolves, lynx - they can encounter on the mountain trail. The population of red deer, round, chamois, roe preserved and multiplied, and completely restored in viable populations of mountain bison. All this thanks to the creation of 20-ies the Caucasian State Nature Reserve and Sochi National Park.
Sochi National Park
Krasnaya Polyana belongs to the territory of the Sochi National Park, considered one of the richest natural reserves of our country. Sochi National Park was established in 1983, becoming one of the first biosphere zones in Russia. On the vast territory in the mountains, the dimensions of which reach 190 thousand hectares, any manufacturing and industrial activity has been discontinued - the land was handed over to the citizens of Russia for recreational and tourist purposes.
The territory of the Sochi National Park is related to the Colchis forest vegetation province with a very rich and diverse flora and historical heritage. On the territory of Sochi National Park is 114 monuments of history and culture - sites of ancient peoples, settlements, dolmens structures kolodtseobraznye tombs, remains of fortresses, temples, burial grounds, sacrificial stone obelisks and military monuments.
After creating the Sochi National Park laid his staff on the territory of forest roads, landscaped paths and bridges, opened to visitors for more than 50 natural objects. This unique canyons, waterfalls, caves and dolmens, as well as the picturesque park area.
Priority for Park related to environmental education. For this purpose, on the territory of forestry, including Krasnaya Polyana, environmental education centers have been created with small museum expositions.
History of Krasnaya Polyana
The man lived in the vicinity of Krasnaya Polyana, a long time ago. In the mountain caves, archaeologists have found ancient tools made of flint and slate, the bones of cave bear and bison, and the monumental places of worship of the Bronze Age - dolmens - surprise anyone who was slightly above the village in the valley of the river Beshenkov.
Caucasus is considered the ancestral home of modern man. Many researchers are inclined to think that this is where the tribes come, laid the foundation for the ancient states of Europe and Asia. For good reason escaped from the Flood, Noah found shelter for his ark is on Mount Ararat. Therefore, Krasnaya Polyana - is not just a piece of nature reserve. It has its own unique history, related to the development of human civilization. Here, scientists found several sites of primitive people, tools made of rock crystal, obsidian, flint, bone.
Many people living in these places, one after another. Of great importance were the trade-economic and cultural ties. Communication difficult to peoples separated by ridges and canyons made it difficult, therefore, of particular importance acquired caravan routes, laid on a convenient route to bypass natural barriers - impassable thickets, cliffs, deep gorges, high snow-capped mountain ranges. In ancient times on the Mzymta River Valley held the shortest trade route from the North Caucasus to the coast Euxine (the Greeks called the Black Sea, in a literal translation - Sea hospitable), where merchant ships came from the metropolis - first Greece, then the all-powerful Rome. There are over twenty castles built in the VI - IX centuries ad. On the Alpine meadows remained atsanguary - ancient corrals, and in the vicinity of the village of the mysterious ancestral tomb - stone dolmens.
Since the time of the Middle Ages the Black Sea coast was inhabited by numerous tribes: Shapsugs, Abadzekhs, Djigets, Bzhedukhs, natukhai, hamyshei, Beslenei, Kabardians Ubykhs and others had a common name Circassians (Adyghe). In Russia, this group of tribes has long been known as Circassians, although the origin of the Turkic ethnonym. Mzymta valley near modern Krasnaya Polyana populated medozyui. Adyghe were people of high culture - they knew foundry, able to sculpt in clay and stone carving of artistic images. The main occupations were for animal husbandry, agriculture and hunting. The Circassians were always cancel the riders, so special attention was paid to horse breeding. With much love mountaineers engaged in gardening, not only in their home gardens, but wherever it was possible. When the season comes vaccination every Circassian, wherever he was, was carrying cuttings cultivated varieties of fruit trees, a knife and a strapping-obmazochnye materials. And once on his way met fruit wildings, he did to them vaccinated. That is how there were orchards, the fruits of which are residents of Krasnaya Polyana and now.
Olympics in Krasnaya Polyana
The development of Krasnaya Polyana received in the last decade. In the village we noticed during Sochi nomination as a candidate for organizing the Winter Olympic Games of 2002. And let this Sochi Olympics spared, but noticed Krasnaya Polyana. The efforts of private investors were constructed ski slopes and queues ski tows.Provoking attempts to create a comprehensive program for the development of mountain-sea resort.
Repeated participation Russia in the struggle for the right to host the Winter Olympics and Paralympics in 2014, to the delight seemed to every citizen of our country, a success - Russia won two qualifying rounds, beating the last stage of the main competitors: South Korea and Austria.
According to the project application from our country, all Olympic events, and accordingly, they are intended for sports facilities, to be located in two key locations of Greater Sochi - the Imereti lowland, situated directly on the Black Sea coast, and Krasnaya Polyana, the pearl of the Caucasus mountain ranges. Two parts of a project were identified coastal and mountain cluster, respectively.
According to the approved IOC program of the XXII Winter Olympic Games to share the mountain cluster accounted for 10 competitive sports disciplines including biathlon, cross country skiing, alpine skiing, snowboarding, freestyle skiing, luge, bobsled, skeleton, ski jumping and Nordic combined. And it is primarily meant that by February 2014, Krasnaya Polyana is to provide thousands of visitors from all over the world high-class facilities for international competitions - the modern sports complexes and equipped ski slopes, comfortable accommodation, logistics and operation of athletes, journalists, official persons, the jury and thousands of fans.