The seaside town of Sochi and the mountain village of Krasnaya Polyana, geographically divided between the Olympic and Paralympic winter games of 2014 relate to the resources of Krasnodar region, one of the most dynamically developing constituent entities of the Russian Federation.
Krasnodar region is the most Northern subtropical region of the world and the most southern region of the Russian Federation. It is located in the Western part of the Caucasus and is washed by two seas – in the South-West is Black, and in the North-West Azov.
For a long time, the Kuban – the famous "breadbasket of Russia", the capital of the Russian ports has an honorary status of the main region of tourist segment of the Russian economy. This are the extraordinary variety of flora and fauna of the region and rich historical heritage – some of the monuments of history and architecture located on the territory of the region date back to the ancient period. In addition, the Krasnodar region is hundreds of kilometers of sea beaches, unique mineral springs and curative mud, as well as a variety of opportunities for recreation, interesting and active rest.
Krasnaya Polyana – the capital of the mountain cluster of the XXII Olympic and Paralympic winter games 2014 - urban-type settlement in the Adler district of greater Sochi.
A picturesque village with a rich history and unique natural environment located 40 kilometers from Sochi, which is linked to modern roads and Railways. The territory of Krasnaya Polyana is a elongated along the Mzymta river, residential area, divided into several administrative sections including directly Krasnaya Polyana (area), the villages of esto-Sadok and Rosa Khutor.
The location of the village is extremely picturesque. The valley of the Mzymta river in Krasnaya Polyana district forms a unique valley surrounded by high mountains, bounded on the North and North-East of the Main Caucasian ridge and its spurs of the Achishkho with peaks exceeding 3000m. From the South and South-East the valley is bordered by the Aibga ridge running parallel to the river valley. The village, though hidden from prying eyes a mighty mountain ranges and stored in its original, a truly extraordinary view of nature.
Krasnaya Polyana is a truly unique natural area, which occupies a worthy place among the world recreational areas. This combination of a mild climate, diverse vegetation, fresh mountain air, the presence of mineral springs and proximity to the warm sea on our planet is no more.
In the early twentieth century, Krasnaya Polyana was characterized as a mountain-climatic station. This definition most closely meets the real uniqueness of the resort, because the path of recovery, you can feel the change of four climatic zones: humid subtropical Mediterranean type, moderately cold West-European type (from 800 to 1800 to 2000 m), cool meadow zone (from 1800 to 2500 m) and Nival (3000 m).
Weather in Krasna Polyana mainly favorable and is characterized by an abundance of Sunny days, allowing you to relax in comfort all year round. The frequent presence of the sun in winter – a nice circumstance for those who would like to combine skiing and sunbathing on the slopes. The average temperature in winter months 0 °C to -5 °C. the coldest month is January, and the snow – February, the most popular among skiers. In General, the ski season in these areas much longer than in similar resorts in Europe – the Alpine areas of the Aibga ridge, called "Circus" and "Circus-2" for his arenearing form, retain a smooth snow cover suitable for skiing until the beginning of June.
Summer at the resort lasts from mid-may to September. It is warm, Sunny and mainly windless. The average temperature in Krasnaya Polyana in summer ranges from +24 to +28 degrees. It gets hot, but heat is transferred much easier than on the coast. This is due to the lower humidity and the presence of forest surrounding the resort with fresh, clean air. At this time of the year in Krasnaya Polyana can go heavy rains, but they rarely are of a protracted nature.
The temperature climate of Krasnaya Polyana is similar to the climate of resorts of the Swiss Alps. So often this scenic area of the Big Sochi is called "Russian Switzerland".
The study of the flora and fauna of the red Glade allows to feel like a traveler not only around the world but also in time, because the natural heritage of these places are presented with an incredible wealth of different kinds. The slopes of the mountains – the forest of Colchis and the Caucasian jungle. Unlike the coast, there are the native plants, among which a considerable part is occupied relict species (miraculously surviving to us from ancient time immemorial) and endemic (growing only in a certain area) . Beech – dominant devoteee plant, but while walking you can often meet oak, hornbeam, gather in the autumn chestnuts and enjoy the beauty of boxwood. At 1800 metres above sea level, the forests become mixed – here there are fir, pine, juniper, larch and other coniferous species. Above are only Alpine meadows full of rare plant species such as rhododendron, butcher Colchis, Caucasian peony, and others.
Animals of the Western Caucasus is inhabited by the expanses of Krasnaya Polyana from the forest zone to the mountain tops. Deer, goat, wild boars, chamois, bears, bison, wolves, lynx – they can meet on a mountain trail. The population of red deer, aurochs, chamois, ROE preserved and multiplied and restored viable populations of mountain bison. All this thanks to the creation of the 20-ies of XX century, the Caucasian state nature reserve and Sochi national Park.
Krasnaya Polyana is part of the territory of the Sochi national Park, considered one of the richest natural reserves of our country. Sochi national Park was created in 1983, becoming one of the first biosphere zones of Russia. On the vast territory of mountains, the size of which reaches 190 thousand hectares, has been discontinued any manufacturing and industrial activities - this land was handed over to the citizens for recreational and tourist purposes.
The territory of the Sochi national Park is attributed to the Colchis forest area with a very rich and diverse fauna and historical heritage. On the territory of Sochi national Park is 114 monuments of history and culture is of ancient people, settlements, dalmannia structures, die hole tombs, the remains of fortresses, temples, burial mounds and sacrificial stones, obelisks, and military memorials.
After the establishment of the Sochi national Park, its staff had laid on the forest roads, improved paths and bridges, was opened to guests more than 50 natural sites. This unique canyons, waterfalls, caves and dolmens and picturesque Park zone.
The priority of the Park is about environmental education. To this end, areas of forestry, including Krasnaya Polyana, the centers of environmental education with minor in Museum displays.
People had settled in the area of Krasnaya Polyana for a very long time. In the mountain caves, archaeologists have found ancient tools made of flint and slate, bones of the cave bear and the bison, and monumental religious buildings of the bronze age – dolmens – a surprise to everyone who was a little above the village in the valley of Besengi.
The Caucasus is considered to be the ancestral home of modern humans. Many researchers are inclined to think that this is tribes, marked the beginning of the ancient States of Europe and Asia. No wonder the survivors of the flood, Noah found refuge for my ark is on the mountain Ararat. Therefore, Krasnaya Polyana is not just a piece of nature reserve. It has its own unique history associated with the development of human civilization. Here, scientists have discovered several primitive people, tools made from rock crystal, obsidian, flint, bone.
Many people live in these places, one after another. Of great importance were the economic, trade and cultural ties. Communication for people separated by inaccessible mountain ranges and gorges, was difficult. Therefore special value acquired caravan route, laid on convenient routes to bypass natural barriers – impassable thickets, rocks, deep gorges, high snow-capped ridges. In ancient times the valley of the river Mzymta took the shortest trade route from the North Caucasus to the coast of the Pontus euxinus (as the Greeks called the Black sea, in a literal translation – a hospitable sea), which came to merchant ships from the metropolis – first Greece, then Rome Almighty. There are more than twenty fortresses built in the VI – IX centuries ad. Alpine meadows preserved azangara ancient cattle trails and in the vicinity of the village of the mysterious ancestral tomb - stone dolmens.
Since the middle ages the black sea coast of the Caucasus was inhabited by numerous tribes: the Shapsugs, abadzekhs, gigity, bzhedugi, natukhai, chamishei, besleney Kabardians, the Ubykhs and the other had the General name Circassians (Adyghe). In Russia this group of tribes has long been known as the Circassians, although the origin of the ethnonym of Turkic-speaking. The valley of the river Mzymta near the present Krasnaya Polyana was inhabited by Midosuji. Adyghe were a people of high culture – they knew the foundry business, were able to sculpt out of clay and carving stone art images. The main occupations were farming, agriculture and hunting. Circassians always had good riders, so special attention was paid to horse breeding. With great love did the highlanders gardening, not only in their backyards, but wherever it was possible. When it's vaccination season, every Circassian, wherever he was, he had the cuttings of cultivated varieties of fruit trees, a knife and wrapper-coating materials. And once on his way met a fruit wildings, he was doing them vaccinations. So here came the orchards, the fruits of which the inhabitants of Krasnaya Polyana are now.
The development of Krasnaya Polyana has received in the last decade. The village noticed at the time of nomination of Sochi as a candidate to organize the Olympic winter games of 2002. Let Sochi and the Olympics bypassed, but Krasnaya Polyana noticed. The efforts of private investors was built ski slopes and chairlift. Began to attempt to create a comprehensive program for the development of mountain-sea resort.
The re-participation of Russia in struggle for the right to host the winter Olympics and Paralympics in 2014, fortunately, it seemed that every resident of our country, was a success – Russia won two qualifying rounds, beating at the last stage of its major rivals: South Korea and Austria.
According to the project application from our country all the Olympic competitions and sports facilities was supposed to place in two key locations of the Big Sochi-the Imereti lowland, located directly on the coast of the Black sea; and in Krasnaya Polyana - the pearl of the mountain ranges of the Caucasus. Two parts of a single project was designated the coastal and mountain Olympic clusters, respectively.
In accordance with the approved IOC programme for the XXII winter Olympic games to share the mountain cluster had 10 competitive sports disciplines, including biathlon, ski race, ski, snowboard, freestyle, Luge, bobsled, skeleton, ski jumping jumping and Nordic combined. And this, in the first place, meant that by February 2014, Krasnaya Polyana had to provide thousands of guests from around the world high-class conditions for holding competitions of international level: modern sports complexes and the ski slopes-equipped; comfortable conditions for accommodation, logistics and operation of athletes, journalists, officials, jury and thousands of fans. With all these challenges, our country successfully.